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Part 1 of Get your hands on some saltpeter. Saltpeter is the common name for potassium nitrate. In the days when black powder was widely used, saltpeter was manufactured from bat guano or made from horse urine and other "manure soils.
You have several options for sourcing saltpeter: Look for "stump remover" in garden stores. An essential resource for creating cartridges.
The main advantage of gunpowder of this brand is its dense composition and the large energy released during combustion. Sign In. From Escape from Tarkov Wiki.
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Gunpowder was discovered in China sometime during the first millennium AD. While it was almost certainly not their intention to create a weapon of war, Taoist alchemists continued to play a major role in gunpowder development due to their experiments with sulfur and saltpeter involved in searching for eternal life and ways to transmute one material into another.
The next reference to gunpowder occurred in the year during the Jin dynasty — The "Inner Chapters" neipian on Taoism contains records of his experiments to create gold with heated saltpeter, pine resin, and charcoal among other carbon materials, resulting in a purple powder and arsenic vapours.
The Taoist text warned against an assortment of dangerous formulas, one of which corresponds with gunpowder: "Some have heated together sulfur, realgar arsenic disulfide , and saltpeter with honey; smoke [and flames] result, so that their hands and faces have been burnt, and even the whole house burned down.
The earliest surviving chemical formula of gunpowder dates to  in the form of the military manual Wujing Zongyao , also known in English as the Complete Essentials for the Military Classics , which contains a collection of factoids on Chinese weaponry.
These types of gunpowder weapons styles an assortment of odd names such as "flying incendiary club for subjugating demons", "caltrop fire ball", "ten-thousand fire flying sand magic bomb", "big bees nest", "burning heaven fierce fire unstoppable bomb", "fire bricks" which released "flying swallows", "flying rats", "fire birds", and "fire oxen".
Eventually they gave way and coalesced into a smaller number of dominant weapon types, notably gunpowder arrows, bombs, and guns.
This was most likely because some weapons were deemed too onerous or ineffective to deploy. One of the first, if not the first of these weapons was the fire arrow.
Early gunpowder may have only produced an effective flame when exposed to oxygen, thus the rush of air around the arrow in flight would have provided a suitable catalyst for the reaction.
The first fire arrows were arrows strapped with gunpowder incendiaries but they eventually became gunpowder propelled projectiles rockets.
It's not certain when this happened. However Joseph Needham argues that rockets could not have existed before the 12th century, since the gunpowder formulas listed in the Wujing Zongyao are not suitable as rocket propellant.
Haw, there is only slight evidence that rockets existed prior to and it is more likely they were not produced or used for warfare until the latter half of the 13th century.
Internal-combustion rocket propulsion is mentioned in a reference to , recording that the 'ground-rat,' a type of firework , had frightened the Empress-Mother Gongsheng at a feast held in her honor by her son the Emperor Lizong.
In , the state of Wuyue sent to the Song dynasty a unit of soldiers skilled in the handling of fire arrows and in the same year, the Song used fire arrows to destroy the fleet of Southern Tang.
In , the Liao dynasty attacked the Song and laid siege to Zitong with , troops. They were repelled with the aid of fire arrows. The imperial court took great interest in the progress of gunpowder developments and actively encouraged as well as disseminated military technology.
They were so astounded that the emperor and court decreed that a team would be assembled to print the plans and instructions for the new designs to promulgate throughout the realm.
One surviving source circa lists all the artisans working in Kaifeng while another notes that in the imperial court sent , gunpowder arrows to one garrison and , to another.
Evidence of gunpowder in the Liao dynasty and Western Xia is much sparser than in Song, but some evidence such as the Song decree of that all subjects were henceforth forbidden from trading sulfur and saltpeter across the Liao border, suggests that the Liao were aware of gunpowder developments to the south and coveted gunpowder ingredients of their own.
An illustration of fire arrow launchers as depicted in the Wubei Zhi The launcher is constructed using basketry.
A "charging leopard pack" arrow rocket launcher as depicted in the Wubei Zhi. So called because of its hexagonal honeycomb shape.
A "long serpent enemy breaking" fire arrow launcher as depicted in the Wubei Zhi. It carries 32 medium small poisoned rockets and comes with a sling to carry on the back.
The 'convocation of eagles chasing hare' rocket launcher from the Wubei Zhi. A double-ended rocket pod that carries 30 small poisoned rockets on each end for a total of 60 rockets.
It carries a sling for transport. The 'divine fire arrow screen' from the Huolongjing. A stationary arrow launcher that carries one hundred fire arrows.
It is activated by a trap-like mechanism, possibly of wheellock design. The Jurchen people of Manchuria united under Wanyan Aguda and established the Jin dynasty in Allying with the Song, they rose rapidly to the forefront of East Asian powers and defeated the Liao dynasty in a shockingly short span of time, destroying the year balance of power between the Song, Liao, and Western Xia.
Remnants of the Liao fled to the west and became known as the Qara Khitai , or Western Liao to the Chinese.
In the east, the fragile Song-Jin alliance dissolved once the Jin saw how badly the Song army had performed against Liao forces.
Realizing the weakness of Song, the Jin grew tired of waiting and captured all five of the Liao capitals themselves. They proceeded to make war on Song, initiating the Jin-Song Wars.
For the first time, two major powers would have access to equally formidable gunpowder weapons. Many fled, screaming in fright.
Its description in the text reads thus:. The thunderclap bomb contains a length of two or three internodes of dry bamboo with a diameter of 1.
There must be no cracks, and the septa are to be retained to avoid any leakage. Thirty pieces of thin broken porcelain the size of iron coins are mixed with 3 or 4 lb of gunpowder, and packed around the bamboo tube.
The tube is wrapped within the ball, but with about an inch or so protruding at each end. A gun powder mixture is then applied all over the outer surface of the ball.
Jin troops withdrew with a ransom of Song silk and treasure but returned several months later with their own gunpowder bombs manufactured by captured Song artisans.
The Jin assault lasted day and night without respite, using siege carts, fire carts, and sky bridges, but each assault was met with Song soldiers who "resisted at each occasion, and also used molten metal bombs.
Wherever the gunpowder touched, everything would disintegrate without a trace. The Song relocated their capital to Hangzhou and the Jin followed.
The fighting that ensued would see the first proto-gun, the fire lance , in action — with earliest confirmed employment by Song dynasty forces against the Jin in during the siege of De'an modern Anlu , Hubei Province ,    .
Fire lances continued to be used as anti-personnel weapons into the Ming dynasty, and were even attached to battle carts on one situation in They were used to defend mobile trebuchets that hurled fire bombs.
Gunpowder technology also spread to naval warfare and in Song decreed that all warships were to be fitted with trebuchets for hurling gunpowder bombs.
The Song commander "ordered that gunpowder arrows be shot from all sides, and wherever they struck, flames and smoke rose up in swirls, setting fire to several hundred vessels.
The men inside them paddled fast on the treadmills, and the ships glided forwards as though they were flying, yet no one was visible on board.
The enemy thought that they were made of paper. Then all of a sudden a thunderclap bomb was let off: It was made with paper carton and filled with lime and sulphur.
Launched from trebuchets these thunderclap bombs came dropping down from the air, and upon meeting the water exploded with a noise like thunder, the sulphur bursting into flames.
The carton case rebounded and broke, scattering the lime to form a smoky fog which blinded the eyes of men and horses so that they could see nothing.
Our ships then went forward to attack theirs, and their men and horses were all drowned, so that they were utterly defeated.
Both sides had gunpowder weapons, but the Jin troops only used gunpowder arrows for destroying the city's moored vessels. The Song used fire arrows, fire bombs, and thunderclap bombs.
Fire arrows and bombs were used to destroy Jin trebuchets. The thunderclap bombs were used on Jin soldiers themselves, causing foot soldiers and horsemen to panic and retreat.
The enemy cavalry was terrified and ran away. In a rare occurrence, the Song made a successful offensive on Jin forces and conducted a night assault using boats.
They were loaded with gunpowder arrows, thunderclap bombs, a thousand crossbowmen, five hundred infantry, and a hundred drummers.
Jin troops were surprised in their encampment while asleep by loud drumming, followed by an onslaught of crossbow bolts, and then thunderclap bombs, which caused a panic of such magnitude that they were unable to even saddle themselves and trampled over each other trying to get away.
Two to three thousand Jin troops were slaughtered along with eight to nine hundred horses. Then everything changed when the Jin dynasty attacked, with even better bombs: the iron bomb.
Traditionally the inspiration for the development of the iron bomb is ascribed to the tale of a fox hunter named Iron Li. According to the story, around the year Iron Li developed a new method for hunting foxes which used a ceramic explosive to scare foxes into his nets.
The explosive consisted of a ceramic bottle with a mouth, stuffed with gunpowder, and attached with a fuse. Explosive and net were placed at strategic points of places such as watering holes frequented by foxes, and when they got near enough, Iron Li would light the fuse, causing the ceramic bottle to explode and scaring the frightened foxes right into his nets.
While a fanciful tale, it's not exactly certain why this would cause the development of the iron bomb, given the explosive was made using ceramics, and other materials such as bamboo or even leather would have done the same job, assuming they made a loud enough noise.
Qizhou was a major fortress city situated near the Yangtze and a 25 thousand strong Jin army advanced on it in News of the approaching army reached Zhao Yurong in Qizhou, and despite being outnumbered nearly eight to one, he decided to hold the city.
While the formula for gunpowder had become potent enough to consider the Song bombs to be true explosives, they were unable to match the explosive power of the Jin iron bombs.
Yurong describes the uneven exchange thus, "The barbaric enemy attacked the Northwest Tower with an unceasing flow of catapult projectiles from thirteen catapults.
Each catapult shot was followed by an iron fire bomb [catapult shot], whose sound was like thunder. That day, the city soldiers in facing the catapult shots showed great courage as they maneuvered [our own] catapults, hindered by injuries from the iron fire bombs.
Their heads, their eyes, their cheeks were exploded to bits, and only one half [of the face] was left. Some said there was a traitor.
If not, how would they have known the way to strike at both of these places? Zhao was able to examine the new iron bombs himself and described thus, "In shape they are like gourds, but with a small mouth.
They are made with pig iron, about two inches thick, and they cause the city's walls to shake. Within four weeks all four gates were under heavy bombardment.
Finally the Jin made a frontal assault on the walls and scaled them, after which followed a merciless hunt for soldiers, officers, and officials of every level.
Zhao managed an escape by clambering over the battlement and making a hasty retreat across the river, but his family remained in the city.
A fast burning rate is effective ballistically but tends to create excessive pressures in the gun barrel. Thus, black powder in its powdered form burned too rapidly to be a safe propellant in firearms.
To remedy this, Europeans in the 15th and 16th centuries began manufacturing powder in large grains of uniform size.
The speed of burning could be varied by using a different size of granule. In the 19th century, as elongated projectiles replaced round balls and the rifling of gun tubes was adopted to rotate and stabilize the projectile, black powders were manufactured to burn even more slowly.
In the s Thomas J. Rodman of the U. Army developed black powder grains so shaped that they provided a progressively greater burning surface as the combustion progressed, with a resulting maximum energy release after the projectile had already begun to travel down the bore of the gun.
Beginning in the s, black powder was gradually supplanted for use in firearms by guncotton and other, more stable forms of nitrocellulose.
Unlike black powder, which burns by the chemical reactions of its constituent ingredients, nitrocellulose is an inherently unstable compound that burns by decomposing rapidly, forming hot gases.
In contrast to black powder, it produces almost all gas upon combustion, earning itself the appellation smokeless powder. Also unlike black powder, nitrocellulose burns progressively, generating more gas pressure as combustion proceeds.
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DavisIm England des Jahres werden Katholiken unter der Schreckensherrschaft des protestantischen Königs James I. verfolgt. Das Ausleben des katholischen Glauben steht unter Todesstrafe verboten. Trotzdem suchen junge Jesuiten nach einem Priester. Gunpowder ist eine britische Miniserie, zu deren ausführenden Produzenten Kit Harington gehört. Sie basiert auf dem Gunpowder Plot, dem Plan von. Der Gunpowder Plot (deutsch Pulververschwörung, seinerzeit als powder treason, „Pulververrat“, bekannt) war ein Versuch britischer Katholiken, während der. Blitzschnell entfalten die kleinen Teekugeln unseres grünen Gunpowder ihren kräftigen Geschmack mit wunderbar herb-frischer Note und einer hellgrünen.